Water cooling equipment
Water cooling systems
In many processes, the efficiency of technological devices decreases, and the parameters and production performance deteriorate due to the release of heat. Process cooling systems for industrial equipment are designed to increase its efficiency and extend its service life, as well as to maintain high quality production. Process refrigeration is an essential requirement for refrigeration, freezing, heat removal and temperature maintenance during manufacturing or other processes. These systems, often known as industrial refrigeration, are used in a variety of industries, including petrochemical, pharmaceutical, food, medical, metallurgical and engineering industries. Depending on the desired result, different process cooling systems operate in a wide range of temperatures: high, medium, low or ultra-low temperature. The refrigerants used also vary, and can be both water and glycol-based solutions diluted in various proportions (antifreezes) that do not freeze at negative temperatures.
Air conditioning systems
The most widespread use of water cooling in the world is to provide comfort in homes, offices, production areas and other service buildings. Depending on the type of facility and the cooling capacity, appropriate devices are selected. To satisfy domestic needs, the direct evaporation equipment of the SPLIT system (air-to-air conditioners) is enough, while for higher output and comfort in a large number of rooms, water - cooled systems, also known as chillers, are designed.. Cooling can be provided either directly through the console fan coil units or through a ventilation system, when the air is cooled by means of a heat exchange device (heat exchanger).
Industrial process cooling systems
One of the most widely used process cooling systems is the +4/+5 ºC temperature system used in most process heat exchangers. These systems typically maintain the temperature within one degree (±1K) of the set temperature. As process cooling systems are used in many important industrial processes, they are usually qualified before being put into service. Since process cooling systems operate year-round, they are often protected by backup cooling sources and pumps (n+1) as well as emergency power supplies. The equipment provided includes devices for monitoring and controlling the main parameters of the cooling process: temperature, flow and pressure.
Depending on the temperature mode, it is possible to design water cooling towers, air-cooled and water-cooled chillers and a centralized cooling system.
Special demand cooling/chilling systems
Cooling systems with lower operating temperatures are also widely used in various industrial applications, such as freeze-drying, freezers or liquid nitrogen heat exchangers, as well as MRI machines, superconducting magnets, etc., which need to be cooled to the temperature of liquid nitrogen. These systems require the use of special coolers, piping, tools and thermal insulation due to low and ultra-low temperature exposure.
Unlike comfort cooling (air conditioning) systems, process and industrial cooling requires not only certain skills and understanding of the physical and chemical laws applicable to various processes, but also the knowledge of engineers and technical personnel about the thermodynamic processes necessary to reach and maintain the temperature within the specified range.
Water cooling systems for food industry
In dairy, vegetable and meat processing plants, iced water prepared close to the freezing point at +0.5/+1.0 °C is found almost everywhere. The water circulating through the devices warms up to +4/+5 °C degrees. Such water is prepared by means of film heat exchangers or tubular heat exchangers. When the price of electricity is lower and the system load is lower (e.g., at night), the refrigeration compressors switch to a lower boiling point to generate ice during the day or at peak loads. In dairy processing plants, where the same iced water is used for cooling the pasteurization line, an additional heat exchanger must be designed to reduce the temperature of the returning heated water above +4/+5 °C.