Industrial heat pumps
Heat Pump - What is It?
Recently, rapidly-gaining-popularity heat pumps are a good counterbalance to nature-polluting heating systems fed with fuel oil or solid fuel. The heat pump is a closed-looped eco-friendly and pollutant-free device filled with a refrigerant. The heat pump lifts heat taken from the heat resource in the environment (ground, borehole water or water body, air) to the required level and transmits it to a heating system of a residential house or other facilities. Depending on the house heating method, the heat supplied from the heat pump to the heating system can be of different temperatures (e.g., floor heating requires +35 °C, radiator heating +50 °C). The house heating method (as well as temperature) also has influence on the heating surface area. The main advantage of the heat pump is cost-effectiveness — the 1kW heat transfer for the heating system consumes 0.4kW electricity. Cost-effectiveness mainly depends on the temperature of the heat resource and the temperature required for the heating system. The lower the temperature of a heat resource (and, the higher the temperature of heating), the lower the coefficient of performance (COP). At the same, the higher the temperature of a heat resource (e.g., ground T = -3 °C; lake T = +4 °C, borehole water T = +10 °C), and the lower the temperature required for the heating system (e.g., floor heating requires +35 °C, radiator heating from = +50 °C), the higher the coefficient of performance of a heat pump.
Since the principle of the heat pump is based on the reverse Carnot cycle, it is possible to use the same device for cooling (air conditioning) during the summer season. During the cold season, the heat drawn from the ground, water or air is transferred to the room (thus, warming it up), while, during the warm period, the heat is taken from the room (thus, cooling it down) and given to the ground, water or air.
The resource of the geothermal energy is in the depths of the earth, and it is constantly replenished with fission energy of radioactive elements (uranium, radium, thorium etc.) and mantle heat from the internal resources and with the solar energy from the external ones.
What should be taken into Account when choosing a Heat Pump?
When choosing a heat pump, it is necessary to clarify the coefficient of performance (the ratio of the heating or cooling provided over the electrical energy consumed) under the real conditions of the selected option (heat resource type with ethylene glycol temperatures and chosen heating type/types with water temperatures), to what extent capacities of a heat pump covers electrical tenas as well as programming capacities of controller and settings etc.
The principle of operation of the heat pump is similar to the principle of operation of the refrigeration system, therefore, when choosing a heating system with a heat pump, it is worthwhile to cooperate with the companies that have experience in refrigeration systems, have engineering personnel specializing in refrigeration systems as well as service staff. This ensures the precise heat pump operating parameters adjustment and professional service in case of a technical fault — quick technical fault troubleshooting is of crucial importance at low temperatures outdoors.
Techniques of Heat Abstraction from the the Environment
Techniques of the geothermal heat and heat abstraction from the environment and heat transfer to facilities:
- Ground/Water Heat Pump - Heat from the depths of the earth: ground/water heat pump, with the help of ground collectors or a ground probe, uses the heat accumulated in the depths of the earth for heating. This pump can meet the heat demand all year round.
- Water/Water Heating Pump - The heat from water: a water/water heat pump takes heating from the constant-temperature ground waters. Thus, stable high performance is achieved — even on cold days.
- Air/Water Heat Pump - The heat from the air: the air/water heat pump uses the heat from the outside heated by the sun. on cold days, it is possible to connect an additional heat resource.
UAB Green Group has recently designed and installed industrial ammonia heat pumps with a total capacity of over 10 MW in Lithuanian manufacturing companies.